PDF Russian Aviation & Military Guide, 2016
Russian Aviation & Military Guide ¹ 01(02) February, 2016
‘Dux’-branded renaissance

‘Dux’-branded renaissance

The most experienced aircraft building enterprise in Russia begins its new stage of development

One of the world’s oldest and the most experienced aircraft manufacturers, Russian factory ‘Dux’ which celebrates its 123-d anniversary this year, is now undergoing full-scale upgrading phase. Known worldwide for its air missiles the enterprise is going to significantly increase the range of equipment manufactured and among other things enter a world market with its new civilian products. We have had a conversation with Director General of ‘Dux’, JSC Yuri Klishin about principles of changes and new milestone of ‘Dux’.

— Mister Klishin, ‘Dux’ has a life history full of bright pages…
— The enterprise which traces its history back to 1893 had been an all-purpose machine builder for over 120 years. Among its great values was a capability of mastering new products in record time and putting wide range of goods into production. Suffice it to recall that during its history ‘Dux’ had been producing hardware for circus, bicycles, motor bikes, propeller-driven sledges, airship, planes, air weapons, missiles and so on. The enterprise received the habitual title ‘the first’ as it comes from its name (Latin Dux for the first). In 20th century ‘Dux’ actually became the father of a number of aircraft companies and brands such as ‘Sukhoi’, MiG’, ‘Yak’, ‘Vympel’, ‘Progress’. Today its main serial products are close air combat air-to-air missiles R-73 and R-73E as well as launcher P-72. I would like to add that thanks to performance R-73 leaves behind all known foreign counterparts in terms of reliability and safety. I may state it is based on my personal experience. According to experts this kind of missile is the most used one by air force.

— How do you describe the current stage of the enterprise in the context of its great history?
— During its more than 120-year-long history ‘Dux’ has always been known for its diversified production and multifunctional products. Today we are also on the way of full-scale increasing product range. We wish to manufacture versatile goods both military and civil ones. Now we are fully engaged in doing so. Furthermore our enterprise is extending fields of application of military products. In particular, there are plans to upgrade the missiles as a whole and their components.
Quick mastering of new products has been the main distinctive feature of our company throughout its history. From bicycles and motor bicycles to propeller-driven sledges, aircraft, engines, weapon systems and small arms. Thus, range of products is defined by state requirements. ‘Dux’ has been very quick in responding tasks and manufactured appropriate goods.
Nothing has changed so far. We are ready for a prompt mastering the widest range of products in favor of the state or customers based on the vast experience and perfect technical facilities which are being now intensively renewed.

— What current ‘Dux’ programs do you think are the most promising and important?
— Our main task is increasing efficiency of our weapons. If yesterday our priority task was a serial production, today we are extending our range of products intensely. We are planning to become developers. In its new capacity ‘Dux’ is going to be in charge of every stage of weapons life cycle: from design to disposal.
We make use of the best traditions of the best Russian engineering centers, cooperate with them, work side by side with national aircraft builders, provide ‘Dux’ designers with the newest technologies, master modern production decisions…

— Is ‘Dux’ today a big cooperative business?
— Yes, it is very big including dozens of enterprises and broad geography from Saint Petersburg and Moscow to Kyshtym and Kurgan. Besides, another important thing is that we have managed to reach mutual understanding with our partners based on close technical collaboration, exchange of guidelines and so on. All this is done to significantly increase rate of mastering new products.
‘Dux’ is deeply involved in industrial networks. We work with almost all leading national aircraft building enterprises such as ‘Sukhoi’, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Novosibirsk aircraft plant, ‘Irkut’. ‘MiG’, ‘Sokol’, ‘Ilyushin’ etc. Moreover, we produce diversified goods and components both for military and civil aircraft.

— What can you say about the export geography of ‘Dux’?
— The export geography is very and very broad. It includes former Soviet republics and far-abroad countries such as China, India, Angola, Vietnam, Egypt, Cuba and others, which altogether involve every region of the world: Asia, Africa, North America, South America.

— Who pays ‘Dux’ to manufacture new products?
— Development of new products requires the enterprise to changeover to another more complicated regulatory system. Thus we see incomparably more regulations, rules, standards, specifications etc. We are managing these challenges step by step.
In addition to that we have much more cooperation with various research and development institutions, government entity-owned bodies including Russian Ministry of Trade and Industry and Defense Ministry.
A production of new goods has been always done according to stricter rules. There are increasing requirements towards skill level since something new has to be added to the development, performances and operation should be improved, weapons potential should be increased.

— Are products already produced by ‘Dux’ going to be improved too?
— Certainly. Thus, we were engaged in and now manufacture removable armaments such as flexible guns. Now we are moving this equipment to a more advanced technical level using latest technologies including microscopic electromechanical systems. We are completely improving control unit and other assemblies.

— And what about development program?..
— We defined the focus of interests during the first development stage, defined enterprises to cooperate with. They confirmed they were also interested in our new products. By the way, it concerns not only military but also civil products the range of which we are going to significantly increase including export-oriented ones.
I would like to highlight that ‘Dux’ and Russia may fully rely on own technological capacities and studies related to innovations.

— As for innovations. Is ‘Dux’ developing ground effect vehicles now?
— We have a program for development of nonconventional vehicles which include among others ground effect vehicles and airships. We are engaged in both subjects.
Ground effect vehicle is a high-speed (up to 250-300km/h) amphibious vehicle capable of long-distance carrying passengers and cargo over various water surfaces including oceans and ice. The speed of such vehicles is three-four times bigger than that of any fast-moving ship.
Meanwhile airships are very good for Russian environment. Western Europe with its well-developed traffic network does not probably need this kind of vehicles. But we have lots of space and difficulties in supplies to far regions… Moreover, an airplane or helicopter require special pad for takeoff and landing, but an airship is capable of moving to a site, lifting a cargo and transporting it to anywhere. Many advantages are offered in this case.
Ground effect vehicles have also many advantages…

— In other words, both airships and ground effect vehicles are not incredible being a real project the enterprise is involved in today?
— Yes, of course. Although we are in the beginning now and there are a lot of things to do in this regard, we have made real steps already. Thus, one of our ground effect vehicles is now being tested in sever environment of Yakutia.

— Is it a sequel of a known Soviet ‘Lun’?
— It is not. Though the project was very interesting, the vehicle was very heavy (over 500 tons) and had low carrying capability. We are making a vehicle made of composite materials, which weighs three tons and can carry three tons payload. The Russian-made composite materials are lighter than water. Operational and safety-related issues have been solved. Besides, we focus on standardizing equipment, fuel systems, navigation, communications etc.

— Are the new vehicles transportation more money-saving?
— Carrying one ton cargo by ‘Ruslan’ aircraft is approximately 10 times more expensive than carrying the same ton by an airship. It is true that an airship cannot fly 600-700km/h, its cruising speed is 150-200km/h. However, often high speed is not required. Besides, we are making hard structure airships capable of withstanding any load and being widely-used for tourist purposes, for example. It has several decks with cabins, elevators, restaurants and other tourist entertainments.

— Is ‘Dux’ ready to produce sporting airplanes too?
— Yes. The point is that there are nearly no sporting airplanes manufactured in Russia. Though there is a demand, not so much for single-seaters used by highly-qualified pilots during sports events but two-seated airplanes designed both for training and sport flying. Making a sporting airplane is also included in ‘Dux’ plan for development.

— You have extensive plans which require significant technological capabilities…
— Currently we are engaged in intensive equipment modernization. We buy new machines, renew and upgrade existing machines, install new attachments. Let us say we mount high-velocity spindles, holders, cutters, computers on solid powerful cast frames of Soviet and Russian machines.
Meanwhile, we bear in mind economy of each production area and buy only the equipment with certain performance which we require. When choosing machines and machining centers we rely on engineers’ opinion who directly define things needed for production. In general we follow a flexible system allowing us to perform upgrade in real-time mode.
Among the principles we follow to establish development strategy of ‘Dux’ is self-dependent and self-sufficient production to avoid being a hostage of circumstances. Currently it is self-sustainment which often determines stability of an enterprise, the extent it is ready for challenges especially in limited supply situation.
WWe have decided to increase our self-dependency, liveness and cost effectiveness. As I said before for this purpose we are upgrading production, renewing personnel, establishing cooperation with other research and development institutions and entities both military and civil ones. Thus, we try to be independent and define new approaches and views to develop some or another product, both military and civil. We wish to enter new markets not due to dumping price but thanks to higher quality goods, which are ‘Dux’-branded. This is worth doing that.

— So we may state ‘Dux’ is in the beginning of a new development stage?
— It is. When introducing new workshop and department managers I say we are developing, we are on a new spiral turn of our history. That is why our requirements to managers and frontline employees get stricter. We also have high quality standards since we have to achieve the goals we defined. By the way, the changes which ‘Dux’ is going through today find support of our partners and customers. We extend the range and area of application of our products, improve quality, and create such performance level which has never been offered in the market before.

— Will these changes influence export too?
— Certainly, they will, in the most positive way. By the way, foreign customers being as a rule quicker to respond to market changes make requirements to have products quality improved. ‘Dux’ in its turn tries to be in advance of main international technological trends. Of course, we do it first of all for the benefit of Russian armed forces.
Besides, we surely try to make export-oriented developments. Russian development-related legislation allows us after entering contracts with Ministry of Defense to acquire author’s rights for products and use them in the future for improvement. We use technologies which help us create high quality reliable ‘Dux’-branded goods which have no rivals in the market at all.
Indeed, no one has thought of creating redundancy rate for missiles. We have managed to do that. We have harmonized solutions for many critical issues. Thanks to this we are going along the road of increasing accuracy, versatility and capacities of our products. We are striving to harmonize solutions to achieve required results in a money-saving way. Due to our own developments our goods is getting more reliable and efficient.

— In what areas is ‘Dux’ going to extend the range of its products?
— ‘Dux’ has been always known for its capability of flexible and quick responding to various demands. Further on we will keep on performing missions assigned relying on experience, technologies and our courage for creating unexpected technical solutions. We are not going to stop with extending capabilities of our products and field of application, for example in terms of mobility, which lead to great outcome.

— In other words, you will do what is required?
— We will. Obviously, some supreme forces help our enterprise. It had been initially enshrined with an idea of quick response to demands. Since Latin ‘Dux’ stands for lookout, leader.

— To what extent are you ready to discuss establishment of joint production facilities on the premises of purchasing countries?
— We are quite ready for it. It does not contravene our legislation or policy of ‘Rosoboronexport’ which well facilitates establishing joint enterprise in various countries. Besides, we are in principle ready to extend cooperation with partners in friendly states, by exchange of specialists among other things.

— What are today’s key trends in missile matters?
— First of all, this is pursuance of multi-task capability, increase of accuracy, antijamming capabilities and versatility. Secondly it includes decrease of cost. Besides, ‘Dux’ tries to perform these tasks by using nontraditional methods among others, based on new technological and organizational principles.

— Where do you get money for such full-scale changes?
— Export contracts make the main source of income. Although everybody is talking about the crisis and difficulties, we consider this period the field of great opportunities and discuss mastering wide range of civil products.

— Do you regard R-73 missile is a masterpiece of military technological thinking?
— Beyond any doubt! It features tested and very dependable aerodynamic configuration, long life. Conducting scheduled repairs of very old missiles we can see they are well operational, though some separate details should be replaced according to service policy. This missile has many ways of development. Fitted with new hardware components it can feature significantly increased fighting capabilities, range, speed, strength. We know a number of upgrading areas where the product can do its best.
Today many efforts are being made to update R-73 missile and its launcher. The missile is getting extended capabilities in terms of performance, G-loads, controllability, dependability, altitude and range. In general the updated version is going to be 1.5 times more efficient. The launcher used by all front-line aircraft is being improved too.
Although currently demand exceeds production, we are extensively developing new areas which include not only missile production. The areas involve warning panels, various electric valves, high-pressure tanks, electric mechanisms and other products most of which are components for other finished goods. We are absolutely sure that manufacturing wide range of goods is some sort of a safeguard against crisis situation.

Some historical details

‘Dux’, JSC traces its history back to 1890’s when Yuri Meller came to Moscow from the town of Weisenstein in Estonia. In 1893 using his wife’s dowry he purchased a small mechanical workshop in Sadovaia-Triumfalnaia street in Moscow. So he began with a production of thin-wall pipe-made parts for circus (aerial bars, stepladders, ladders etc.). Later he began to manufacture steam heating pipes. During the first year the workshop turnover was 30 thousand rubles. In 1894 Yuri Meller set up assembling of bicycles buying components from England. Bicycles were constantly improved, the owner was quickly introducing new technologies.

The production was continuously extended: annual release of bicycles grew from 150 pieces in 1895 to 1,000 pieces of different versions every year. By the end of 19th century there had been 115 workers at the factory. In spring 1901 the company bought a piece of land in Tverskaia Yamskaia and began to build a production facility upon the project of architect Gippius. By the end of the year equipment was installed in the new workshop and the factory commenced operation.

In early 1900’s ‘Dux’ started to set up a production of petrol-powered bicycles followed by cars with 7hp engines like American Oldsmobiles. In 1905 the enterprise manufactured about 100 Duxmobiles, 30 of which were fully Russian-made. The company has become the only ever Russian car-builder which produced steam, electric and petrol-driven cars.

Aviation became the next stage. Having begun with manufacturing airships in 1910 ‘Dux’ built its first airplane, and in 1910’s the enterprise was nearly fully engaged in producing airplanes. Thus it became the biggest in Russia aircraft building factory. The beginning of the First World War led to pickup in orders. In average release of aircraft increased 2.5 times. Thus, during the period from 1914 till 1917 the factory built 190, 382, 481 and 543 airplanes respectively. No Russian aircraft building factory has had such production grow rates.

After the 1917 Revolution all aircraft building enterprises were nationalized. ‘Dux’ was named State Aircraft Building Factory 1 (GAZ 1). Not limited with producing smooth-running serial goods ‘Dux’ set up serial production of new battle planes during difficult period of the Civil War. Along with building new aircraft the factory was engaged in aircraft overhaul. In the beginning of 1923 a design office was established at the factory 1. The office was headed by N.N.Polikarpov.

By the beginning of 1930’s the factory 1 built 100 aircraft on a monthly basis, making nearly all components and assemblies by itself apart from motors and instruments. By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War the factory remained the only plant which specialized in producing air weapons. It manufactured almost all aircraft guns for Soviet fighters, ground support planes and bombers.

During the Second World War the factory fully changed to military production. Along with air guns it manufactured weapons for infantry. In 1946 the factory began emergency mastering series of Tu-4 strategic bomber.

Missile R-73

Short range air-to-air infra-red seeking combined aero and gasdynamic control missile is designed for conducting fast-moving close air combats, killing air targets (fighters, ground support planes, bombers, transport aircraft, helicopters and cruise missiles) from rear hemisphere and on collision course. It is capable of operating day and night, under active countermeasures taken by enemy, in any climatic conditions. The missile can also destroy ground-based heat-source targets and automatic drifting balloons.

The missile can be launched by both ground and ship-based fighters or ground support aircraft.

Combat performance:
- Launch weight, kg
- Length, mm
- Body diameter, mm
- Wingspan, mm
- Finspan, mm
- Warhead weight, kg
- Launch range:
Max front hemisphere, km
Min rear hemisphere, km
- Max angle of attack, grad
- Max lateral G load, g
- Designating angle, grad
- Homing eye deflection angle, grad
- Target altitude, km
- Max speed of target, km/h
- Target G load, g
up to 12
- Warhead type
- Powerplant
Single-mode solid fuel engine
- Proximity fuse
Active radar fuse / Active laser fuse

Production facilities of ‘Dux’, JSC:
Equipment in use:
  • John Ford
  • DMG
  • HAAS
  • ÀÑ-200
  • Trumatic-120R
  • Gemini
  • Schaublin- 225
  • Cheron
  • Anka

‘Dux’, JSC is engaged in the following production:

Automatic three-layer decorative and protective coating system (nickel, semi-bright nickel, bright chrome) for producing decorative and protective coatings for steel and copper with a capacity of 15 m2/hour.

The system is used for restoring cleaners, chroming solutions, continuous selective cleaning of nickel plating solutions, conservation of cleaning water and materials. The production is ecofriendly.

Silver-plating, gold-plating electrolytes and cleaning water recovery unit.

The types of coatings being manufactured are as follows:
  • Alkaline zinc-plating (galvanizing) with brighteners made by Atotech Deutschland GmbH (Germany);
  • Sulphated cadmium-plating with brighteners;
  • Hard chromium plating;
  • Nickel-plating;
  • Electroless nickel-plating;
  • Copper-plating;
  • Tin-plating;
  • Tin-bismuth alloy coating;
  • Aluminum alloys anodizing;
  • Aluminum alloys chemical oxidizing;
  • Phosphating;
  • Oxide phosphating;
  • Stainless steel electrolytic polishing;
  • Stainless steel chemical passivating;
  • Removal of alfin layer from titanium alloy parts;
  • Copper alloys chemical passivating;
  • Silver-plating.

  • Mass production of 160x160mm up to 2mm-thick flat parts of any configuration powered by Bruderer-made press (with equipment available);
  • Piece and low-batch production of up to 12mm-thick flat iron parts of any configuration powered by laser-beam machines LW -1325 and Platino 1530-2200-2D;
  • Piece production of up to 3mm-thick flat parts of any material powered by punching machine TRUMATIK-120R;
  • Low-batch production of parts drawn with stamping tools (height 160mm, diameter 400-500mm, thickness up to 6mm) powered by ERFURT 2500tf press machine;
  • Low-batch production of pressed parts powered by general-purpose press machines 16, 25, 63 and 100ft;
  • Forming (heated) of titanium parts with horizontal size of 500x1200mm powered by knee crank machines 2,500ft;
  • High-ductile materials impact extrusion (aluminum, copper, brass).

There are works underway to produce low-carbon steel parts.

There are all types of equipment, to produce the most geometrically complicated parts (press tools, moulds, devices, special machine attachments, special non-uniform cutting and measuring tools). In particular, there are electrical discharge cutting machines AS-200 to make cut out patterns with maximum size of 400õ250õ256mm and tracer controlled punching machines AT-270 with maximum axial stroke (y, z) of 500õ350õ500mm. Tools are manufactured with Gemini and Picomax 90 Top grinding machines.

Is done with:
  • Automatic, semiautomatic and computerized capstan machines up to quality class 7 and up to Æ 50mm;
  • Multi-axis boring machines;
  • Gear-shaping and gear-cutting automatic machines;
  • All kinds of grinding finish;
  • All types of milling machining;
  • Processing with multi-operation îcomputerized machines (machining centers SHAUBLIN -60; SHAUBLIN-100; SHAUBLIN-140; SHAUBLIN-150; SHAUBLIN-180; SHAUBLIN-225; Picomax-54 top); HAAS; Cheron.
  • Rolling of thin-wall shells;
  • Cold heading of parts up to 80mm and up to 80mm long;
  • Thread rolling with automatic and semi-automatic threading machines with up to 20mm and quality class 6.



Various methods of cast molding:
  • Aluminum and zinc alloys (from 0.005 to 10kg heavy) high pressure casting;
  • Aluminum, magnesium alloys and cast iron sand casting; hand molding. Casting weight from 0.1 to 80kg;
  • Lost-wax casting of constructional steel (35KhGSL, 16KhGTL), specialty steel (08Kh14N5M2DL, 10Kh18N9BL), copper alloys (bronze, brass). Casting weight from 0.005 to 15kg;
  • Metal mold casting of aluminum and magnesium alloys including high-strength aluminum alloys SIGMA > 40 kgf/mm2, DELTA > 8%. Casting weight from 0.03 to20 kg.

Alloys in use:
  • Aluminum: ÀÊ12, ÀÊ7ch, ÀÊ8l, ÀÌ4,5Êd, GOST standard 1583-93; magnesium: ÌL5, ÌL5pch., GOST 2856-79;
  • Bronze: BrÀ9ZhZL, Br010F1, Br010S10, brass LS59-1L; zinc alloy: TsA4Ì1
  • Steel: SÒ.20, 35KhGSL, 16KhGTL, 10Kh18N9BL, 08Kh14N5Ì2DL; Capability of casting with other alloys is available.

  • Forming of heated blanks of steel and non-ferrous alloys with weight from 0.003 to 20kg with crank-type friction press;
  • Open forging of steel or non-ferrous blanks with weight from 0.1 to 60kg;
  • Non-ferrous forging ( 200mm and 150mm);
  • Open forging by ring rolling;
  • Cutting of blanks to be formed and open-forged with shearing press, belt and rotary saw.

  • Oxy-hydrogen welding;
  • Argon arc non-consumable electrode welding of àconstruction, stainless steel, titanium and aluminum alloys;
  • Consumable electrode welding of construction low-carbon steel in carbon-dioxide environment;
  • Lock-chamber-assisted continuous brazing in rotor and vacuum furnace of heat-resistant construction steel with high melting point solders in chromium powder;
  • Oxy-acetylene brazing of high-pressure pipes;
  • Inert atmosphere copper brazing of low-carbon and construction steel with recovery elements available;
  • Argon arc impulse welding of sheet structures of titanium and aluminum alloys;
  • Arc plasma cutting of sheet aluminum, stainless steel and copper alloy blanks.

Electrical works:
  • Producing wire harnesses, checking electrical data, connector sealing;
  • Assembling and soldering of circuit boards;
  • Producing electronic assemblies with modern microprocessor-controlled heat soldering stations PACE (USA) capable of ensuring the most safe soldering mode;
  • Manufacturing of electronic units, adjustment and checking of electrical data by means of test and control equipment.

  • Winding of armatures, stators, coils, toroidal cores;
  • Producing of up to 1,500W-strong electric motors;
  • Producing contact switches;
  • Assembling products, adjustment, equipment monitoring;

Polymeric powder paint-based coating line is designed for:
  • Producing coatings featuring high decorative and protective, insulating, physical and mechanical properties;
  • Coloring long steel and aluminum products and parts of any configuration.

  • High-pressure molding of such thermoplastics as polyethylene, polyamide, polycarbonate, ABS plastic, polypropylene and others by means of injection-molding machines:
  • KuASY – injection volume from 31 to 407 cm3;
  • KLOCKNER – injection volume 1,760 cm3;
  • SP – injection volume from 130 to 1,230 cm3;
  • MST – injection volume 3,100 cm3.

Robotic system "KLOCKNER" Ferromatik Desma which includes injection-molding machines W-650 and W-800 is equipped with modern molding process data control facilities powered by microcomputers and microprocessors. Thanks to use of thermostat WCC-45, robotic manipulator "Remak" and drying unit "Somos" all production cycle including raw charging and pickup and placing parts is fully mechanized and automated:
  • Rubber mix rolling;

Pressing thermoset materials and rubber vulcanization by means of hydraulic press RNM-63, D2430B, RNM-100 using such molding materials as DSV, phenolic plastics, amino plastics and rubber mixes.

Thus, thanks to well-qualified personnel and modern equipment our enterprise is capable of excellent accomplishing any engineering and production task.

The unique combination of advanced technologies, special attention to details, selection of the best components, high production quality and many-year experience makes production capacities of ‘Dux’, JSC one-of-a-kind. Our efforts to reach best value for money are a guarantee of success.
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